I don't know if previous versions of SQL Management Studio supports the dark theme, but 2016 and version 17 support it just fine. In order to get the dark theme like visual studio, you have to edit the following file. You will need to run your text editor as administrator in order for this to work.
- C:\Program Files (x86)\Microsoft SQL Server\140\Tools\Binn\ManagementStudio\ssms.pkundef
Once you have the file open, do a search on Remove Dark theme.
Now proceed to comment out all the lines in this section and save the file. If you are unable to save, you didn't run your editor in admin mode.
Once you have the file edited. Open SSMS and navigate to Tools -> Options -> Environment -> Color theme and select Dark.
You should now have SSMS using a dark theme...